Phenols and Salicylates: What They Are and Why It Matters

by Jordan Reasoner

Phenols are nothing more than natural chemicals made up of a benzene ring with one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to it (science talk for how it is put together). They are found in many of the foods we eat like fruits, veggies, and nuts and can also be man-made for use in common non-food applications such as toothpaste, hair dyes, medicine, and disinfectants. It is important to remember that most foods have some level of phenols in them (there are many subgroups, compounds, and close chemical relatives) and that they are natural and can even be beneficial to the body, as is the case with antioxidants in fruit.

Salicylates are one type of phenol in the phenol family and scientists believe they are produced by plants for use as their own natural protection from diseases, insects, fungi, and harmful bacteria. They are made up of a phenol compound with an additional COOH group (more science talk about how it is put together). As it turns out, salicylates are chemically very similar to the man-made chemical acetylsalicylic acid, more commonly known as Aspirin.

Dr. Feingold is probably the most widely-known individual to study this chemical, as he developed what is now referred to as the Feingold Diet. Parents with children on the Autism Spectrum are usually familiar with his work. He started out in the 1960s, as a pediatrician and allergist, studying children’s negative reactions to aspirin. Through his work, he found that many other dietary chemicals were causing physical and even behavioral reactions in his patients. He developed the Feingold Diet to eliminate all food additives, colorings, and salicylates.

Why Do People React to Them?

In a normal body, one with the correct levels of sulfates and liver enzymes, phenols and salicylates are easily metabolized. The body utilizes what it needs from the chemicals and properly disposes of the rest through the bowels. In those whose levels are abnormal, or in the case of leaky gut syndrome, intolerance to this chemical family can occur rather quickly.

Many people with gut issues, such as yeast/bacteria overgrowth or digestive diseases, can develop salicylate intolerance as a result of leaky gut Syndrome.  Leaky gut is a result of various digestive problems and occurs when the small intestine becomes too damaged to properly filter the size and types of food particles or chemicals that enter the bloodstream (for more on leaky gut read this). When these improper particles are allowed to repeatedly enter the bloodstream, the body tries to get rid of them by triggering an immune system response. Because phenols/salicylates are so common in most foods, a person with a leaky gut will have much higher than normal levels of these chemicals in their blood and can very quickly develop intolerances to these specific particles.

Why Can It Affect Children on the Autism Spectrum More?

Research by Dr. Rosemary Waring, at the University of Birmingham, found that children on the Autism Spectrum have low levels of the enzyme phenol-sulfotransferase-P (the enzyme that breaks down the phenol and amine families, also known as PST) and the substrate it uses: sulfates. Sulfates are a key tool the body uses in the process of detoxification and breaking down phenols such as salicylates. Without normal levels of sulfates in the body the sulfotransferase enzyme cannot do the task it was created to do: metabolize salicylates. So, there are two problems

Are ASD Children Affected More?

with PST deficiency: low sulfate levels and low enzyme levels. PST deficiency alone can cause problems in children (remember phenols are normal), but factor in any intestinal damage resulting in leaky gut along with it and your child’s body can easily be overwhelmed. The end result is a salicylate intolerance and the subsequent physical and behavioral reactions that come with it.

Reactions Caused By Phenols

Salicylates stimulate the central nervous system in people that react to them. This can often bring with it an emotionally extreme high followed by a very low, low. Other reactions to the phenol family can occur anywhere from immediately after consumption and up to 48 hours after the consumption of the chemical depending on the immune response. Physical reactions can include: dark circles under the eyes, red face/ears, diarrhea, headache, difficulty falling asleep at night, night waking, and in some cases excessively tired and lethargic. Behavioral symptoms of a reaction can be: hyperactivity, aggression, head banging or other self-injury, and even inappropriate laughter. Hyperactivity is more common in children’s reactions, whereas adults generally experience symptoms similar to chronic fatigue.

How Does SCD Fit In?

The tough part is that phenols, and more specifically salicylates, are found in most foods that we eat, so it is almost impossible to completely eliminate them from your diet. The most realistic thing to do is to try to only eat the foods that contain smaller amounts of the chemical by incorporating a low-salicylate diet.

SCD is great for addressing digestive imbalances which contribute to leaky gut, whereas the low-salicylate diet does not. When comparing the two side-by-side, the SCD diet can appear to completely contradict a low-salicylate diet. As SCD includes many fruits, veggies, and nuts that are also high in phenols, trying to combine the two can leave you wanting to pull your hair out. The good news is that in the beginning stages of SCD most people peel and cook their fruits and veggies, which eliminates a large portion of the chemical. To get an idea of phenol levels in foods we’ve included a few links to good phenol/salicylate food charts:



The best approach is to try a hybrid SCD diet that is low in salicylates where you become more conscience of using fruits, veggies, and nuts that contain lower levels of the chemical and see if any symptoms improve. To help with this, we looked at the amazing work of the folks at and the stages diagrams that they have published. We updated the charts to include an indication of the level of phenols in each item. They are available for free to download as a PDF here: just enter your name and email to download them. The lower phenol containing foods are at the top of each section shown with lighter colors and the phenol level increases down the list with the darker color transitions. The charts can help you to methodically introduce new foods as you progress through the diet while only using those foods that are lower in phenol content.

Over time, there is a possibility that the immune system responses to chemicals will die down. In that case, try introducing some foods higher in phenols that are only consumed every 4 days and see if the symptoms return. In some cases a four day rotation will be enough to avoid a reaction, but in others there will always be a reaction. In both situations, awareness of the chemical levels in the foods that are being consumed can drastically improve physical and behavioral reactions that might linger even while strictly following SCD.

Good luck and good health!


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About the author

Jordan Reasoner Jordan Reasoner is a health engineer and author. He was diagnosed with celiac disease in 2007 and almost gave up hope when a gluten-free diet didn’t work. Since then, he transformed his health using the SCD Diet and started to help others naturally heal stomach problems. You can check out his story here and find him on Google+, Facebook or Twitter.

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{ 41 comments… read them below or add one }

Hannah January 23, 2018 at 10:22 pm

If one suddenly developed an intolerance to foods with sugar most all fruits and veggies other than potato (brain fog is the main symptom) what do you do with that? Can that be healed? Makes no sense and nothing shows wrong with liver, etc.

Lori Jo Berg January 25, 2018 at 10:03 am

Hi Hannah – Several food intolerances indicates a leaky gut and possible gut infections and/or hormonal issues. What we’d suggest is taking this customized quiz to get an idea of where to start:

We also highly recommend you register for one of our free Solving Leaky Gut Webinar’s, where the following will be addressed and much more:

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Stephanie Minneti October 3, 2017 at 6:45 pm

I was told that correcting glycine conjugation can help as this is the metabolic process for breaking down salicylates.

Would taking glycine supplement help?
It is also found in gelatin, bone broth etc.

I find this very interesting as I also have ehlers-danlos which is a collagen defect.

Do you have any information which could be helpful? My mother and grandmother discovered it when they stumbled across Feingold’s diet when I was a child. I am now 42. I’ve also been diagnosed with Mast Cell Activation disorder and salicylate are very high trigger for mast cell degranulation.
I’ve had severe salicylate intolerance my whole life and through research found that phenols and terpenes are also an issue.

Lori Jo Berg October 4, 2017 at 12:55 pm

HI Stephanie – thanks for sharing! I can’t say we’ve done the research to give you a solid answer on glycine and if it would help…we will keep our eyes and ears open for information on it, though:)

Denise September 24, 2017 at 7:47 pm

Thank you for this clear and concise article on phenolics. I run food sensitivity screenings for my clients and often several different phonolic sensitivities come up. I will refer them to this article so they can better understand.

Angela July 15, 2017 at 10:38 am

Houston labs has a digestive enzyme specifically for breaking down phenols. It’s called No-Phenol.

Grace Flower June 3, 2017 at 11:38 pm

My son has had behavioral problems since 2nd grade (he’s 13 now). He couldn’t tolerate dyes, nitrates, apples, cinnamon, preservatives, Benzoates, and more. Chlorine from the pool is an issue. He would react and punch holes in walls and doors, rubbing his arms up and down, feeling like his skin was tingling, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, chanting the same phrase repeatedly, he was just a mess. He developed hypersensitivity to medication, he had allergies, asthma, ADD, Learning Disabilities and anxiety that made him never want to leave the house (now we gone school). Since we learned about PST, we use Epsom salts baths, liquid zinc, b vitamins, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum and unflavored Pedialyte. The difference is amazing!!! He’s finally happy, truely happy, calm, nice. A joy to be around. No more red ears, red cheeks, horrible tantrums, even his under eye circles look better. We do a strict Failsafe Diet but he finally feels good and that’s so important. It took 5 years to get here but I’m so glad we figured it out.

Lori Jo Berg June 5, 2017 at 11:18 pm

Thanks for reaching out and sharing this with us! What an amazing accomplishment. I’m really curious as to what diet you used to achieve those results! Would you mind sharing more? You can email me at [email protected] if that is something you’d like to do. Or here is fine too:)

Tanya du Plessis June 18, 2017 at 1:13 am

We have a similar story and the only diet that worked as grain free, dairy free failsafe. My kids are sensitive to all chemicals including salicylates, amines, glutamates, chlorine….. the list goes on. But after 2 years, we’re in a great place and the biggest skeptics have actually turned around and apologised…because our kids have a had such a dramatic turnaround. It seems our chemical sensitivity started after mould exposure in our house.

Lori Jo Berg June 19, 2017 at 12:43 pm

Thanks for sharing this, Tanya! Glad the kiddos are doing better:)

Tanya du Plessis June 18, 2017 at 1:09 am

How wonderful for your son that he has a Mom like you! It seems like you trusted your instincts and didn’t stop looking for answers until you found them. ?!!

Kerrie March 19, 2016 at 9:49 pm

Hi Mariel Heiss
The test I would recommend that you get is a pyrolles urine test.
People with high pyrrolles are usually intolerant to salycilates.

Hannah January 23, 2018 at 10:03 pm

Are those tests actually accurate?

Jenn December 2, 2015 at 8:06 pm

I stumbled upon this when trying to figure out if apples, bananas and chocolate make my son lose his *ish* for a specific reason, or if I’m “anxious mom” who makes up creazy correlations in her head. I can’t help but feel that my son has some kind of issue with Phenols. Is there a blood test to check? What should my next step be? He is 6 y.o. dx ASD and PANDAS.

Mariel Heiss December 3, 2015 at 4:20 pm

Hi Jenn – there is no reliable blood tests for this that Steve and Jordan recommend – it is more something you can test on your own by eliminating foods. A diet like SCD is best for finding out what foods your son is reacting to – you can learn more here:

Hope this helps!

Jane May 13, 2016 at 11:31 pm

Hi Jenn
My son is NT but highly sensitive to phenols. Bananas, chocolate and vanillin (fake vanilla flavour) Block the phenol sulfotransferase enzyme and are also high in phenols. Apples are high in phenols.
It has taken me years to work out what is wrong with my son, and I’ve finally realised it’s phenols.
He now takes No-Fenol enzymes with meals and is 100% better. I also give him epsom salt baths to increase his sulfur and that seems to work, especially if he’s particularly toxic from an exposure.

elle May 15, 2017 at 7:16 pm

Hi Jane

Is your son on a strict phenol free diet whilst taking the supplement?

Beth August 27, 2015 at 10:55 am

Hi. I just took the alcat test and found out I’m sensitive to phenols as well as all the foods high in phenols. But I’m also sensitive to glucosamine and chondroitin. Does that mean I should stop eating gelatin and bone broth?

Mariel Heiss August 27, 2015 at 11:32 am

Hi Beth – thanks for reaching out to us 🙂

We recommend you check out this video:

We don’t recommend you eat any foods that make you feel bad or cause a reaction. If you have a reaction to glucosamine and chondroitin and decide not to eat bone broth or gelatin, you may consider using colostrum – it’s another amazing gut-healing supplement.

I hope this helps!

Arjane Brown August 6, 2015 at 8:45 am

Help! Does Atorvastin,Jenuvia,and lisinopril contain salicylic or cause natural production of phynols?

Mariel Heiss August 12, 2015 at 3:22 pm

Hi Arjane, I’m really sorry but we aren’t familiar with these medications and can’t tell you if they produce phenols. We recommend you consult with your doctor about any medications.

Nancy August 2, 2015 at 7:30 pm

Sounded good until I read about drinking grape juice with gelatin on the scd intro diet. Grape juice is high in salicylates!

Mariel Heiss August 3, 2015 at 7:25 pm

Hi Nancy, thanks for commenting.

Many people react to the grape juice and gelatin. We recommend you just skip it entirely, as the same nutrients in the gelatin are also in the broth.

Another option is to mix the gelatin with water or with lime, lemon, or another plain juice you tolerate.

I hope this helps and you’ll give the diet a try – everyone has to modify it in some way and thats what we specialize in helping people do 🙂

Linda May 13, 2015 at 10:44 pm

So would a good test to check for this type of sensitivity to give your child a good dose of aspirin and see if they have any negative side effects from it? If not then they shouldn’t have a salicylate sensitivity?

Lori Jo Berg May 18, 2015 at 5:06 pm

Hi Linda, we highly suggest testing this with food as mentioned in the article and as always, please contact your practitioner as well.

Grace Flower June 3, 2017 at 11:23 pm

If you do have a salicylate allergy and you ingest aspirin, you can have aspirin toxicity. That can kill you.

Ava November 12, 2017 at 8:47 pm
Lisa January 22, 2015 at 8:12 pm

I would like to get a copy of the charts with levels of phenols. Thanks.

Brent Kovacs January 25, 2015 at 5:20 pm

Hi Lisa, thanks for reaching out! Please sign up for our Free Quick Start Guide here:

Jason August 3, 2013 at 1:43 pm

Yep. Phenol is simply a benzene ring with an alcohol attached to it. My best advice is to pick up a cookbook entitled “Allergy Friendly Food” co-written by Dr. Anne R. Swain, one of the top researchers on salicylates in the world. Good luck!

Jennie July 25, 2013 at 12:52 am


I have recently been diagnosed with an intolerance to benzene, am I correct (after reading) that naturally occuring phenols could be as hazardous to my health as chemically made ones?

Help!! Im going nuts..

Vee April 17, 2013 at 5:15 pm

Michael….did you or your kids have food sensitivities related to phenols? Do you mind me asking if your (all of you) allergies were mainly seasonal type or if food issues were included and if so what kind? How long did it take for you to clear these problems by using Allercyl?

Michael Dunn February 3, 2013 at 2:16 pm

Phenol intolerance can be cheaply treated by desensitizing the phenol intolerances. Worked for me, my two kids and three nephews. Dr. Theresa Dale found the easiest way to treat phenol intolerance and it amazes me that more people have not heard about this.

Becky March 18, 2014 at 2:58 am

Hi Michael, which ones did you use for salicylate/phenol intolerance? I took a look, and I’m really interested, but my sure which would be best?! My daughter has salycilate and additive intolerance (msg/preservatives etc)

Kate December 28, 2015 at 11:32 pm

Thank you for the post Michael, that website gives me a lot of hope – will definitely give the homeopathics a go 🙂

stephanie March 24, 2017 at 8:42 am

Not sure what youbused from thisbsite, can you help

Ashlee Kirk April 22, 2017 at 10:09 am

Can you email me the cheap way to desensitize the phenol intolerance? I’ve been struggling with this for 9 years before I figured out that this was causing my brain fog after eating, it’s no wonder I seems to react to everything when I thought I was eating healthy!

Jen July 24, 2017 at 9:34 pm

Ashlee, did you ever find help with your issues?

Claire Hards September 1, 2017 at 8:48 pm

Hi, I would also like to know what formula you used for salicylate intolerance.

Bobbie O'Shea September 22, 2017 at 3:20 pm

I’m leaving a response on the latest date on this thread. I was diagnosed with salicylate sensitivity about 10 years ago and find the blow sal diet works for me in conjunction with plenty of sunshine and steam rooms help to lower my bad reactions. I have crohns disease and have had most of my intestine removed( I have 2 out of 7 metres left if I’m right) peeling and cooking fruit and veg makes absolutely no difference to my intolerance and I still react. I eat nuts about 3 times a year as they cause reactions faster than anything other than alcohol. I was told to only drink quality champagne ( which made my husband laugh!) But it’s true. I found great relief on a combination of natural supplements including daily sulphur (msm) which can make you a very smelly person to be with?. I’m not sure anything apart from a low sal diet would work for someone in my position due to not only compromised gut but lack of it. I often get the feeling sals can also affect your eyes as mine get very red but I’m not sure that could be yet another thing crohns disease blesses me with.

Fiona Dennis October 3, 2017 at 6:57 am

Hi Michael, how exactly did Dr Dale help you?